Yeast Doughnuts – TPA and Puncture
shelf life, moisture migration, firmness, stiffness, softness, staling, springiness, cohesiveness, resilience
Doughnuts are at their peak flavor and softness when first made. They become harder, more crumbly, and less desirable over time. Formulators work within constraints for texture, size, weight, flavor, packaging volume, short-term and long-term shelf life. Doughnuts are complex systems because crust and crumb stale at different rates, moisture migration becomes complex when glazed, and packaging can affect how quickly doughnuts achieve moisture equilibrium. This study addresses how texture changes can be measured with the TA.XTPlus Texture Analyzer using two different methods. It provides an excellent case study of how staling occurs in baked products.