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hardness, springiness, resilience and cohesiveness

Bologna TPA Test

Processed meat texture is affected by different ingredients and manufacturing techniques. The parameters of hardness, springiness, resilience and cohesiveness can be well quantified with a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) style test. This study presents several ideas as to how to conduct TPA tests on processed meats. The study also illustrates the use of penetration distances of 50% of the detected height of a slice (strain) and 90% strain, and the use of a narrow 1/2” diameter cylinder probe (TA-10), a 1” diameter cylinder probe (TA-11), and a 3/4” diameter ball probe (TA-18A). Texture Profile Analysis tests involve (i) compressing a sample either a fixed distance or a percentage of its product height (% strain), (ii) withdrawing to the original sample height as it was determined by the trigger force, (iii) allowing the sample to rest/recover during a fixed time period, and (iv) repeating the original compression to precisely the same distance as the original penetration. Based on the product’s behavior, hardness (or softness), springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess (valid only for semi-solid products), chewiness, fracturability and resilience can be quantified.